This project aimed at novel nano-sized thermal sensors that can measure temperature and retrieve thermal history of the biological agents experienced during the testing of agent-defeat weapons. Thermal response of Au-based core/shell nanostructures and thin film upon rapid temperature change was studied and their potential as dynamic nanothermometers was explored. The fund ($557,586) mainly supported a PhD student and 2 postdoc fellows at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and Texas State University. The knowledge gained under the support of this project was disseminated through journal publications and conference presentations. The project produced 10 publications in peer-reviewed journals.